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Trip Planner Asia  /  Pakistan  /  Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province  /  Peshawar


Landmarks · History Museums · Historic Sites
Peshawar is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. It also serves as the administrative centre and economic hub for the Federally Administered Tribal Areas. Situated in a broad valley near the eastern end of the historic Khyber Pass, close to the border with Afghanistan, Peshawar's recorded history dates back to at least 539 B.C.E., making it the oldest city in Pakistan and one of the oldest in South Asia. With a population of 1,970,042 according to the 2017 census, Peshawar is the largest city of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the sixth-largest in Pakistan.EtymologyThe earliest settlement established in the area of Peshawar was called Purushapura, from which the current name "Peshawar" is derived.The Arab historian and geographer Al-Masudi noted that by the mid 10th century, the city had become known as Parashāwar. After the Ghaznavid invasion, the city's name was again noted to be Parashāwar by Al-Biruni. The city began to be known as Peshāwar by the era of Emperor Akbar, a name which is traditionally said to have been given by Akbar himself.The new name is said to have been based upon the Persian for "frontier town," or more literally, "forward city," though transcription errors and linguistic shifts may also account for the city's new name. Akbar's bibliographer, Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak, lists the city's name by both its former name Parashāwar, transcribed in Persian as پَرَشاوَر, and Peshāwar .
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